Marine science chapter 5 questions

1. What are three reasons scientists have for classifying organisms?
2. What two taxa does an organism’s scientific name represent?
3. What are the seven main taxa into which scientists classify organisms?
4. How do taxonomists determine into which taxon to classify an organism?
5. What common problem do taxonomists have in classifying organisms, and how do they solve it?
6. What is the six-kingdom system?
7. What is the three-domain system?

8. What are the prokaryotes?
9. In what ways are archaea and bacteria similar?
10. What can some bacteria do that no other known organisms can do?
11. Why do scientists think the cyanophytes are crucial to life?
12. What are algae? How many phyla of algae are there?
13. What organisms make up the phylum Bacillariophyta?
14. About what percent of the photosynthetic biomass do diatoms produce?
15. What organisms make up phylum Dinophyta?
16. Why is the genus Symbiodinium important to coral reefs?
17. What are chlorophylls a and b?
18. What evolutionary significance do scientists give these chlorophylls in green algae?
19. What allows red algae to live deeper than other algae?
20. Why are red algae important to coral reefs?
21. What is the largest of the brown algae? Why is it important?
22. What is the greatest challenge for a plant to adapt to living in the sea?
23. What are submergent and emergent marine plants?
24 Other than food and oxygen, what do marine plants provide for other marine organisms?
25. What three reasons make mangrove swamps important to the environment?

26. What are the two major cell types in a sponge’s tissue?
27. How do sponges feed?
28. In what way are sponge larvae more animal-like than adult sponges?
29. What marine organisms make up phylum Cnidaria?
30. What anatomical characteristics distinguish members of phylum Cnidaria?
31. What is the largest class in phylum Cnidaria? What marine organisms are in this class?
32. In what class are fire corals and siphonophores?
33. In what classes are the Portuguese man-of-war, jellyfish, and box jellyfish?
34. What are the differences between jellyfish and comb jellies?
What characterizes members of phylum Platyhelminthes?
35. What characterizes members of phylum Nemertea?
36. What characterizes members of phylum Nematoda?
37. What is the longest animal in the world?

38. What organisms make up phylum Mollusca?
39. What three characteristics do members of phylum Mollusca share?
40. What mollusks belong to class Gastropoda?
41. What is torsion in gastropods? When does it happen?
42. What mollusks belong to class Bivalvia?
43. What mollusks belong to class Cephalopoda?
44. What are the major differences between cuttlefish, squid, and octopuses?
45. Which cephalopod is thought to be the most intelligent invertebrate?
46. What characteristics do you find in organisms classified in phylum Arthropoda?
47 What characteristics do you find in organisms classified in superclass Crustacea?
48. What characteristic of barnacles sets them aside as class Cirripedia?
49. Why are organisms in class Copepoda important to ocean food webs?
50. What characteristics do crustaceans in order Decapoda have in common?
51. Why are the crustaceans in order Decapoda important to the fishing industry?
52. Why are krill important to ocean food webs?
53. What characteristics distinguish organisms classified in phylum Echinodermata?
54. How are members of phylum Echinodermata similar to chordates?
55. What class and characteristics do sea lilies and feather stars share?
56. What class and characteristics do the sea stars share?
56. What class and characteristics do the brittle stars share?
57. What class and characteristics do sand dollars and sea urchins share?
58. What class and characteristics do the sea cucumbers share?
59. What are the characteristics that classify an organism in subphylum Vertebrata?
60. What is the significance of organisms in class Agnatha?
61. What evolutionary development do scientists think occurred in the Cambrian period that gave rise to more complex fish?
62. What organisms are in class Chondrichthyes? What characteristics do they have in common?
63. What traits make sharks and rays in subclass Elasmobranchii successful predators?
64. How do most sharks and rays reproduce?
65. What is the largest shark? What does it eat?
66. What organisms make up superorder Batidoidimorpha?
67. How does the anatomy of a ray compare to the anatomy of a “typical” fish?
68. What are the characteristics of organisms in class Osteichthyes?
69. How do most bony fish reproduce?
70. Why is their greater diversity among fish that live on reefs or the bottom than among those that school or live in the open ocean?
71. What two orders of bony fish are particularly important to worldwide fisheries? What type of fish are in these two orders?

72. What characteristics do organisms in class Reptilia share?
73. What three orders of reptiles have marine species? What types of animals do you find in each of these orders?
74. What characteristics are shared by organisms in class Aves?
75. What roles do birds play in marine ecosystems?
76. What adaptations to the marine environments do the various bird species exhibit?
77. In what parts of the world can penguins be found?
78. What characteristics do organisms in class Mammalia have in common?
79. What challenges and adaptations to life in the sea do we find among marine mammals?
80. In what order do the seals and sea lions belong? How do seals and sea lions differ?
81. In what order do whales, porpoises and dolphins belong?
82. In what order do dugongs and manatees belong?
83. What human activities have endangered or may endanger marine mammals?